Thursday, 11 October 2012

Lecture One - Psychoanalysis.

Simon Jones

  • the development of psyche from birth
  • the development of the unconscious
  • the development of gender identity
  • understanding the complexities of human subjectivity
  • not only a form of therapy can be applied to other things an over arching theory of subjectivity
  • a way of categorising and understanding desire, motivation, dreams
  • we are not entirely in control of what we do

Sigmund Freud
  • conceived the idea in the late 1890's
  • treated hysteria patients using psychoanalysis by guiding them to accept repressed thoughts
  • he analysed his and his mothers dreams in terms with their hidden associations with 'wish-fulfillment'
  • observed infants and their relationships with their parents

Dynamic Unconscious
  • created through infancy to protect our conscious selves from events, ideas and thoughts that are not acceptable
  • continues to affect our conscious selves in some way
  • the unconscious is chaotic and without order and language
  • makes itself present through ticks, slips and symptoms (accidentally saying something)

Stages of Development
  • our development is full of contradictory thoughts and ideas
  • an attempt to make sense of both biological/instinctual and logical/thinking
  • we create associations and assumptions, often incorrectly
  • the developing child goes through stages: oral, anal and phallic

Psycho-sexual Identity
  • oedipus complex - 'to want' vs. 'to be wanted', confusing feelings, sexual/love, misunderstanding of ideas and emotions
  • development of both masculine and feminine identities in relation to the penis/phallus
  • castration complex - to boy fears castration while the girl accepts she already has
  • penis envy - the girl begins to realise she doesn't have a penis. Not as a sexual organ but as a way of relating to the father figure
  • both create negative feelings, powerlessness and missing something
  • the child must overcome these issues in order to become a 'normal' member of society

The Uncanny
  • relates to the visual world
  • something that is simultaneously unnatural yet familiar
  • when the barrier between fantasy and reality break down
  • analogies between the psychology and aesthetics

Freudian Models
  • id, ego and super ego
  • id - instinctual, fulfilling needs as biological beings
  • ego - memories, thoughts, individual personality of ourselves
  • super ego - slightly outside of ourselves,  represents the parts of ourselves in relation to others (social order/language) placed upon us by society
  • unconscious, preconscious and conscious
  • unconscious - selfish ideas
  • preconscious - memories, natural thoughts
  • conscious - opinions and thoughts

Jacques Lacan
  • 1960's 70's presented his own brand of psychoanalysis
  • he reconceptualised Freud's findings through the theoretical model of structural linguistics
  • he said the development of the psyche is entwined within the structures of language
  • brings back psychoanalysis a 'return to Freud'

The Mirror Stage
  • the childs recognition of itself in reflection (reflection in object/other people) 
  • signifies a split or alienation
  • rivalry - while the child may recognise its own image it is still limited in movement and dexterity
  • resulting in a formation of ego which aids a reconciliation of body and image
  • captation - the process by which the child is at once absorbed and repelled by the image of itself

Lacanian Unconscious
  • 'the unconscious is structured like a language'
  • the unconscious in the discourse of the Other
  • highlighting the ways in which meaning is encoded within linguistic signs
  • unconscious details are encoded in various ways as they slip into consciousness

  • a word is used to represent something else which possess similar characteristics
  • symptoms are translated elements of unconscious material adopting a metaphor style coding

Lacanian Phallus
  • not a biological organ but a symbol of power attained through it association.
  • lack - the potential/actual lack
  • masculinity/femininity are not biological definitions but symbolic positions
  • provides a 'speaking position in culture'

The 'orders' of reality
  • the real - that which cannot by symbolised, where our most basic sleeves exist
  • the imaginary - the order which exists before symbols, where the ego is born and continues to develop
  • the symbolic - exists outside of ourselves

Pschoanalysis and Art Criticism/theory
  • subjectivity - what it is to be human, motivations, desires, the unconscious. To help us understand why things are as they are. to helps us understand the designers motivation
  • model-based theory - models provide a tool for categorising or breaking down individual and groups of design work

Edward Bernays
  • 'the godfather of PR'
  • applied knowledge of psychoanalysis, unconscious desire to advertising and PR campaigns
  • revolutionised advertising by applying manipulation techniques
  • promoting lifestyle rather than the product

  • psychoanalysis provides us with the definition of the unconscious
  • a definition of subjectivity outside of logic and rationality
  • a tool to help understand motivations of art works
  • a tool to help understand how art and design affects us

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