- Type is the intersect or overlap between visual and verbal communication.
- Typography covers: a meta communication - a language that is used to comment on another language, paralinguistics - structures another language or the rhythm of communication and - gestures alongside words to change meaning.
- Type classification: Humanist, old style, transitional, modern, slab serif (egyptian) and sans serif.
Type through time
- Roman Age - most of our alphabet came from this time. Tragans column.
- Dark Ages - 1000 years of no development
- Medieval - lower case was developed.
- Age of Print - Guttenberg printing press invented in 1450, moveable type. First moveable typefaces were based on human writing, black letter/gothic.
- The first typeface was created by Nicolas Jenson and it was called Jenson.
- More readable and modern than black letter.
- Designed to look Italian renaissance.
- Characteristics are little difference in first and second stroke and inclination of the 'e'
- Painter Geofroy Troy believed the alphabet should reflect the proportion of the human form.
- The next fifty years of type really developed.
- Shift between imitating human writing to type, as an art on its own.
- Characteristics are no upturned 'e' and spacing.
- Type as a distinct form.
- Now type wasn't based on the human form but created on quasi-scientific lines.
- During the enlightenment period, 1693.
- Characteristics are difference in stroke width. Also as society became more rational the letters became more vertical.
- Late 18th century John Baskerville created a type with a contrast between thick and thin.
- Start of Modernity.
- Sometimes called Didone.
- 1784 French Modernity, Giambattista Bodini.
- Characteristics are very high stroke contrast, every angle horizontal and vertical, ordered, represented elegance and style.
- 1880's, industrial revolution.
- The nickname 'Egyptian' is random and does not relate to the style.
- Characteristics not sophisticated, rules of hierarchy broken, condensed to fit lots on a page.
- Typewriter font.
- Around in the 1800's but popular in the modernist era.
- Progressive, looking to the future.
- Uni cameral, all text lower case.
- Grotesk typefaces are simple and stripped down, all about communication and historicism.